- How quickly does the Holderness coast erode?
- What types of erosion and weathering processes are happening at Holderness?
- How is the Holderness coast being managed?
- How is mappleton protected?
- What is Flamborough Head made of?
- How do groynes work?
- How are humans causing change on the Holderness coast?
- Are groynes hard engineering?
- What is the fastest eroding coastline in the world?
- Why have rates of erosion increased to the south of Withernsea?
- What causes coastal retreat?
- Why is the Holderness coast eroding so fast?
- What is the problem with the Holderness coast?
- Does chalk erode quickly?
- Why is hornsea protected?
How quickly does the Holderness coast erode?
around 2 metres per yearThe Holderness Coast is one of Europe’s fastest eroding coastlines.
The average annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year.
The main reason for this is because the bedrock is made up of till (soft clay).
This material was deposited by glaciers around 12,000 years ago..
What types of erosion and weathering processes are happening at Holderness?
In the case of the Holderness coastline, its geology (weak clays) waves (destructive during North Sea storms) and Geomorphology (the shape of the coastline allows the waves to break at the base of the cliffs) make erosion almost inevitable. However some defences have been attempted.
How is the Holderness coast being managed?
Management strategies Hornsea is protected by a sea wall, groynes and rock armour. Coastal management at Withersea has tried to make the beach wider by using groynes, and also uses a seawall to protect the coast. Mappleton is protected by rock groynes. Spurn Head is protected with groynes and rock armour.
How is mappleton protected?
In 1990, Mappleton was under threat from losing 30 houses and its main road. In 1991, sea defences were built in order to protect the village and B1242 main road from intense sea erosion. The Holderness Coast is the most rapidly eroding coastline in Europe.
What is Flamborough Head made of?
Flamborough Head is a chalk headland located on the Holderness Coast. Chalk is a sedimentary rock which is made up of the bones of thousands of marine animals and invertebrates which would have inhabitated a prehistoric tropical sea.
How do groynes work?
Groynes were originally installed along the coastline in 1915. Groynes control beach material and prevent undermining of the promenade seawall. Groynes interrupt wave action and protect the beach from being washed away by longshore drift. Longshore drift is the wave action that slowly erodes the beach.
How are humans causing change on the Holderness coast?
Man-made structures – groynes have been installed to stop long-shore drift. This narrows unprotected beaches elsewhere even more. Powerful waves – waves at Holderness travel long distances over the North Sea (so have a long fetch ) which means they will increase in energy.
Are groynes hard engineering?
Examples of hard engineering include: Groynes – Low walls constructed at right angles to retain sediments that might otherwise be removed due to longshore drift. These structures absorb or reduce the energy of the waves and cause materials to be deposited on the updrift side of the groyne facing the longshore drift.
What is the fastest eroding coastline in the world?
The Holderness Coast is one of Europe’s fastest eroding coastlines. The average annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year. This is around 2 million tonnes of material every year.
Why have rates of erosion increased to the south of Withernsea?
Rates of coastal erosion have increased to the south of the defences at Withernsea. This is because the material is trapped by the groynes along the seafront. This means beach material that is transported away by longshore drift is not replaced leaving little sediment on the beaches.
What causes coastal retreat?
Coastal erosion may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion, impact and corrosion by wind and water, and other forces, natural or unnatural. … Over time the coast generally evens out. The softer areas fill up with sediment eroded from hard areas, and rock formations are eroded away.
Why is the Holderness coast eroding so fast?
There are two main reasons why this area of coast is eroding so rapidly. The first is the result of the strong prevailing winds creating longshore drift that moves material south along the coastline. The second is that the cliffs are made of soft boulder clay which erodes rapidly when saturated.
What is the problem with the Holderness coast?
What causes the Holderness coastline to retreat? The problem is caused by: strong prevailing winds creating longshore drift that moves material south along the coastline. the cliffs which are made of a soft boulder clay, and will therefore erode quickly, especially when saturated.
Does chalk erode quickly?
Chalk is a sedimentary rock because it is formed of compressed sediment. It is also permeable because water can pass through it. … Because chalk is sedimentary and porous it can be easily eroded and weathered by wind, rain and waves which means the chalk cliffs are often unstable.
Why is hornsea protected?
Hornsea (destructive waves breach defences) In Hornsea sand has accumulated where protection exists. This is because the groynes provide a barrier to sediment transportation. This has reduced erosion along the front of the town but increased rates are evident further south where the defences stop.